Growth of Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus Fed with Moist Diet

Asep Ridwanudin, Varian Fahmi, Idham Sumarto Pratama


Oxygen is a vital parameter in aquaculture activities. The decrease of dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture media should be highly observed, since very low dissolved oxygen conditions (hypoxia) could negatively affect to the growth and survival of fish. Therefore, research on the condition of hypoxia is very important to be studied. This study was conducted in January-February 2013 at the Laboratorium of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Pukyong National University, South Korea to measure oxygen consumption in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (total length: 14.2 ± 1.4 cm, weight: 31.3 ± 2.0 g) under normal conditions (normoxia) and hypoxia. Measurement was conducted using respirometer (dimension: 20 × 17,5 × 10 cm; volume: 3,5 L) every 10 minutes during four hours of observation. Experiment was conducted with three replications. The results showed that oxygen consumption of tilapia fingerlings in hypoxia conditions (12.09 ± 3.20 mg O2/kg/h) was lower than normoxia (35.67 ± 4.19 mg O2/kg/h) (P<0.01). Continuous hypoxic conditions could negatively affect fish movements, which could ultimately lead to mortality when dissolved oxygen levels are very low. Meanwhile, the results on determination of critical oxygen levels for tilapia showed a dissolved oxygen range of 1.9 ± 0.5 mg/L


Lobster, diet, moist, growth, P. homarus


Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 1984. Official methods of analysis 14th edition. AOAC Arlington. USA. 1141 pp.

Adiyana, K., E. Supriyono, A. Pamungkas dan L. Thesiana. 2015. Evaluasi penggunaan system jaring terhadap respon produksi pendederan juvenile lobster pasir (Panulirus homarus) menggunakan teknologi resirkulasi. Jurnal Kelautan Nasional 10(3): 139-150.

Chau, N. M., N. T. B. Ngoc and L. T. Nhan. 2009. Effect of different types of shelter on growth and survival of Panulirus ornatus juveniles. Proceeding of an International symposium on spiny lobster aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Autralian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. p. 85-88.

Crear, B. J., C. W. Thomas, P. R. Hart and C. G. Carter. 2000. Growth of juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is influenced by diet and temperature, whilst survival is influenced by diet and tank environment. Aquaculture 190(1-2): 169-182.

Erlania., I. N. Radiarta dan K. Sugama. 2014. Dinamika kelimpahan benih lobster (Panulirus spp.) di perairan teluk Grupuk, Nusa Tenggara Barat: Tantangan pengembangan teknologi budidaya lobster. J. Ris. Akuakultur 9(3): 475-486.

FAO. 2011. Yearbook of fishery and aquaculture statistic. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nation. Rome. 105 pp.

Floreto, E. A. T., R. C. Bayer and P. B. Brown. 2000. The effects of soybean-based diets, with and without amino acid supplementation, on growth and biochemical composition of juvenile American lobster, Homarus americanus. Aquaculture 189(3-4): 211-235.

Folch, J., M. Lees and G. H. S. Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 497-509.

Forster, I. P., W. Dominy, L. Obaldo and A. G. J. Tacon. 2003. Rendered meat and bone meal as ingredients of diets for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture 219(1-4): 655-670.

Foster, I., 2008. Use of fisheries coproducts in feeds for aquatic animals. In: Lin, C., C. D. Webster and C. S. Lee (Eds). Alternative protein sources in aquaculture diets. The Haworth Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York. p. 117-131.

Glencross, B. D., M. Booth and G. L. Allan. 2007. A feed is only as good as its ingredients – a review of ingredient evaluation strategies for aquaculture feeds. Aquaculture Nutrition 13(1): 17-34.

Hall, G. M. 2011. Fishmeal production and sustainability. In Hall, G. M. (Ed). Fish processing – Sustainability and new opportunity. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., UK. p. 207-235.

Haryanti, S. B. M. Sembiring, Sudewi, Z. Widiastuti, N. A. Giri dan K. Sugama. 2017. Respons imunitas benih lobster, Panulirus homarus dengan penggunaan probiotik pada pakan moist. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur 12(1): 85-97.

Hendriks, W. H., C. A. Butts, D. V. Thomas, K. A. C. James, P. C. A. Morel and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2002. Nutritional quality and variation of meat and bone meal. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(10): 1507-1516.

Hertrampf, J. W. and F. Piedad-Pascual. 2000. Handbook on ingredients for aquaculture feeds. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands. 573 pp.

Hilal, K. dan Y. Fachri. 2016. Kepentingan Indonesia melarang ekspor benih lobster ke Vietnam tahun 2015. JOM FISIP 3(2): 1-15.

Huiwen, C. and S. Yinglan. 2007. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate. Env. Sci. Pollut. Res. 14(7): 463-469.

Irvin S. J. and K. C. Williams. 2009. Panulirus ornatus feed development: from trash fish to formulated feed. Proceeding of an International symposium on spiny lobster aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Autralian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. p. 147-156.

Jobling, M., E. Gomes and J. Dias. 2001. Feed types, manufacture and ingredients. In Houlihan, D., T. Boujard and M. Jobling (Eds). Food intake in fish. Blackwell Science Ltd., USA. p. 25-48.

Johnston, D., R. Melville-Smith and B. Hendriks. 2007. Survival and growth of western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus (George) fed formulated diets with and without fresh mussel supplement. Aquaculture 273(1): 108-117.

Jones, C. M. 2010. Tropical spiny lobster aquaculture development in Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India 52(2): 304-315.

Kim, J. H., D. K. Gomez, C. H. Choresca Jr and S. C. Park. 2007. Detection of major bacterial and viral pathogens in trash fish used to feed cultured flounder in Korea. Aquaculture 272(1-4): 105-110.

Perera, E., I. Fraga, O. Carrillo, E. Diaz-Iglesias, R. Crus, M. Baez and G. S. Galich. 2005. Evaluation of practical diets for spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804): effects of protein sources on substrate metabolism and digestive proteases. Aquaculture 244(1-4): 251-262.

Petersen, E. H., C, Jones and B. Priyambodo. 2013. Bioeconomics of spiny lobster farming in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development 10(1): 25-39.

Phillips, B. and H. Matsuda. 2011. A global review of spiny lobster aquaculture. In Fotedar, R. K. and B. F. Phillips (Eds). Recent advances and new species in aquaculture. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., UK. p. 22-84.

Priyambodo, B. and Sarifin. 2009. Lobster aquaculture industry in eastern Indonesia: present status and prospects. Proceeding of an International symposium on spiny lobster aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Autralian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. p. 36-45.

Radford, C. A., I. D. Marsden, W. Davison and A. G. Jeffs. 2007. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on growth of juvenile New Zealand rock lobsters, Jasus edwardsii. Aquaculture 273: 151-157.

Smith, D. M., K. C. Williams, S. Irvin, M. Barclay and S. Tabrett. 2003. Development of pelleted feed for juvenile tropical spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus): response to dietary protein and lipid. Aquaculture Nutrition 9(4): 231-237.

Smith, D. M., K. C. Williams and S. J. Irvin. 2005. Response of tropical spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus to protein content of pelleted feed and to a diet of mussel flesh. Aquaculture nutrition 11(3): 209-217.

Tacon, A. G. J. and M. Metian. 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trend and future prospects. Aquaculture 285(1-4): 146-158.

Tan, B., K. Mai, S. Zheng, Q. Zhou, L. Liu and Y. Yu. 2005. Replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal in practical diets for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamai (Boone). Aquaculture Research 36(5): 439-444.

Thomas, C. W., C. G. Carter and B. J. Crear. 2003. Feed availability and its relationship to survival, growth, dominance and the antagonistic behaviour of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii in captivity. Aquaculture 215(1-4): 45-65.

Tuan, L. A. and L. V. Hung. 2009. Comparison of biological, economic and environmental efficiency of seacage culture of Panulirus ornatus lobsters using different practical diets. Proceeding of an International symposium on spiny lobster aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Autralian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. p. 110-115.

Tuan, L. A. and N. D. Mao. 2009. Effect of trash fish spesies and vitamin supplementation on productivity of Panulirus ornatus juveniles fed moist diets. Proceeding of an International symposium on spiny lobster aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Autralian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. p. 126-130.

Williams, K. C. 2007. Nutritional requirements and feeds development for post-larval spiny lobster: A review. Aquaculture 263(1-4): 1-14.

WWF-Indonesia. 2015. Seri panduan perikanan skala kecil perikanan lobster laut panduan penangkapan dan penanganan. Jakarta Selatan. 22 pp.

Xu, Z., X. Lin, Q. Lin, Y. Yang and Y. Wang. 2007. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and energy waste outputs of four marine cage-cultured fish fed with trash fish. Aquaculture 263 (1-4): 130-141.

Yang, Y., S. Xie, W. Lei, X. Zhu and Y. Yang. 2004. Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 17(2): 105-114


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Powered by OJS | Design by ThemeOJS