Status Kontaminasi Fisik dan Kimia di Teluk Jakarta periode 2015-2021

Rachma Puspitasari, Christian Maikel Eman, Dwi Aprilliana Pusparany, Nofi Rahmawati Azzah, Solichah Ratnasari, Sri Hayyu Alynda Heryati, Noverita Dian Takarina


Status of Nutrients, Dissolved Oxygen, Suspended Total Solids and Emerging Contaminants in Jakarta Bay from 2015 to 2021. Coastal regions in Indonesia are rich in natural resources and have a strong attraction for the local population. As a result of increased industrial, agricultural, and development activities on land, anthropogenic pressures in the region are particularly severe. Jakarta is one of the coastal cities that requires special attention. Based on five years research data, this paper attempts to examine the status of contamination from physical and chemical parameters of water in the seas of Jakarta Bay (2015-2021). Furthermore, the latest data on paracetamol and microplastics in 2021 were also examined and compared to prior studies. The Jakarta Environment Agency data of total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrates and phosphates from 11 estuaries and 23 sites in the Jakarta Bay were used on the research. The physical characteristics of water chemistry at low tide are higher than at high tide because input factors from the river. The phosphate and nitrate levels have exceeded the 0.015 and 0.06 mg/L, respectively. During the eastern season, TSS in Kamal and Angke estuaries reached 186 and 255 mg/L, respectively. Muara BKT, Marunda, Cilincing, and Sunter have DO levels of less than 5 mg/L. Increased distance from the estuary is related to lower levels of TSS, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and nitrate. Paracetamol level was measured to be 258.5, 222,77, and 5,069 ng/L at Angke, Ancol, and Cengkareng, respectively. To mitigate the threat of environmental risks, the addition of paracetamol and microplastic parameters must be addressed in monitoring and regulation of the safe limits of both parameters


water quality, Jakarta Bay, pollutant, emerging contaminant


Adyasari, D., Pratama, M. A., Teguh, N. A.,Sabdaningsih, A., Kusumaningtyas, M. A., & Dimova, N. (2021). Anthropogenic impact on Indonesian coastal water and ecosystems: Current status and future opportunities. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 171.

Barbosa, I., Pizzaro, I., Freitas, R. & Nunes, B. (2020). Antioxidative and neurotoxicity effects of acute and chronic exposure of the estuarine polychaete Hediste diversicolor to paracetamol Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 77, 103377

Barboza, L. G. A., Dick Vethaak, A., Lavorante, B. R. B. O., Lundebye, A. K., & Guilhermino, L. (2018). Marine microplastic debris: An emerging issue for food security, food safety and human health. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 133, 336–348). olbul.2018.05.047

Baum, G., Kusumanti, I., Breckwoldt, A., Ferse, S. C. A., Glaser, M., Dwiyitno, Adrianto, L., van der Wulp, S., & Kunzmann, A. (2016). Under pressure: Investigating marine resource-based livelihoods in Jakarta Bay and the Thousand Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin,110(2), 778–789.

Besley, C. H., & Birch, G. F. (2021).

Comparison of mangrove (Avicennia marina) metal tissue concentrations to ambient sediment with an extensive range of contaminant levels in a highlymodified estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 171.

Brown, D. M., Wilson, M. R., MacNee, W.,Stone, V., & Donaldson, K. (2001). Size-dependent proin-flammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: a role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 175(3), 191–199.

Browne, M. A., Dissanayake, A. , Galloway, T. S., Lowe, D. M. , & Thompson, R. C. (2008). Ingested Microscopic Plastic Translocates to the Circulatory System of the Mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). Environ. Sci.Technol., 42(13), 5026–5031.

Cordova, M. R., & Nurhati, I. S. (2019).Major sources and monthly variations in the release of landderived marine debris from the Greater Jakarta area, Indonesia. Scientific Reports, 9(1).

Cordova, M. R., Riani, E., & Shiomoto, A.(2020). Microplastics ingestion by blue panchax fish (Aplocheilus sp.) from Ciliwung Estuary, Jakarta, Oseanologi dan Limnologi di Indonesia 2022 7(1): 1-1311 Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 161.

Cordova, M. R., Nurhati, I. S., Riani, E., Nurhasanah, & Iswari, M. Y. (2021a). Unprecedented plasticmade personal protective equipment (PPE) debris in river outlets into Jakarta Bay during COVID-19 pandemic. Chemosphere, 268.

Cordova, M. R., Ulumuddin, Y. I., Purbonegoro, T., & Shiomoto, A. (2021b). Characterization of microplastics in mangrove sediment of Muara Angke Wildlife Reserve, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 163.

Correia, B., Freitas, R., Figueira, E., Soares, A.M.V.M., Nunes, B., 2016. Oxidative effects of the pharmaceutical drug paracetamol on the edible clam Ruditapes philippinarum under different salinities. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part - C Toxicol. Pharmacol. 179, 116–124.

Devlin, M. J., Lyons, B. P.,Johnson, J. E., & Hills, J. M. (2021). The tropical Pacific Oceanscape: Current issues, solutions and future possibilities. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 166.

Damar, A., Colijn, F., Hesse, K.J., Wardiatno, Y. (2012). The eutrophication states of Jakarta, Lampung and Semangka Bays: Nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics in Indonesian tropical waters. J. Trop. Biol. Conserv. 9 (1),61–81.

Damar, A., Hesse, K., Colijn, F., Vitner, Y. (2019). The eutrophication states of the Indonesian sea large marine ecosystem: Jakarta Bay, 2001–2013. Deep-sea research part II: Tropical Studies in Oceangraphy.163, 72-86.

Dimpe, K. M., & Nomngongi, P. N. (2016). Current sample preparation methodologies for analysis of emerging pollutants in different environmental matrices. TrAC Trenc in Analytical Chemistry, 82,199–207.

Dwiyitno, Dsikowitzky, L., Nordhaus, I., Andarwulan, N., Irianto, H. E., Lioe, H. N., Ariyani, F., Kleinertz, S., & Schwarzbauer, J. (2016). Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110(2),767–777.

Earp, H. S., Prinz, N., Cziesielski, M. J., & Andskog. M. (2018). For a World Without Boundaries: Connectivity Between Marine Tropical Ecosystems in Times of Change. In Simon Jungblut & Viola LiebichMaya Bode (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2017 conference for Young Marine Researchers (pp.125–144).

Ebele, A.J., Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, M., Harrad, S., (2017). Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the freshwater aquatic environment. Emerging Contaminants, 3 (1), 1–16.

Fanela, M. A. P., Tarina, N. D. & Supriyatna. (2019). Distribution of total suspended solids (TSS) and chlorophyll-a in Kendari Bay, Southeast Sulawesi. IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1217 (2019) 012150.


Gewert, B., Ogonowski, M., Barth, A., & MacLeod, M. (2017). Abundance and composition of near surface microplastics and plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 120(1–2), 292–302.

Hu, W., Zhang, D., Chen, B., Liu, X., Ye, X.,Jiang, Q., Zheng, X., Du, J., & Chen, S. (2021). Mapping the seagrass conservation and restoration priorities: Coupling habitat suitability and anthropogenic pressures. Ecological Indicator.129,

Jambeck, J. R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T. R., Perryman, M., Andrady, A., Narayan, R., & Lavender Law, K. L. (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 347(6223), 768–771.

Kemenkomarves (2018). Rujukan Nasional Data Kewilayahan. Https://Maritim.Go.Id/Menko-Maritim-Luncurkan-Data-Rujukan-Wilayah-Kelautan-Indonesia/. Koagouw, W., & Ciocan, C. (2020). Effects of short-term exposure of paracetamol in the gonads of blue mussels Mytilus edulis. Challenges in Emerging Environmental Contaminants, 27, 30933–30944.

Koagouw, W., Arifin, Z., Olivier, G. W. J., & Ciocan, C. (2021a). High concentrations of paracetamol in effluent dominated waters of Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 169.

Koagouw, W, Stewart, N. A., & Ciocan, C.(2021b). Long-term exposure of marine mussels to paracetamol: is time a healer or a killer? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 48823–48836.

Lebreton, L. C. M., van der Zwet, J., Damsteeg, J. W., Slat, B., Andrady, A., & Reisser, J. (2017). River plastic emissions to the world ’s oceans. Nature Communications, 8.

Lestari, P., Trihadiningrum, Y., Wijaya, B.A., Yunus, K.A., Firdaus, M., 2020. Distribution of microplastics in Surabaya River, Indonesia. Sci. Total Environ. 726.

Lolić, A., Paíga, P., Santos, L. H. M. L. M., Ramos, S., Correia, M., & Delerue-Matos, C. (2015). Assessment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmaceuticals in seawaters of North of Portugal: Occurrence and environmental risk. Science of the Total Environment, 508, 240–250.

Mahenda, A. A., Wiradana, P. A., Kuncoroningratsusilo, R. J., Soeginato, A., Ansori, A. N.M., & Arindapradisty, N., (2021). Relationship of Water Quality with Phytoplankton abundance in Kenjeran Coastal Waters, Surabaya, Eastjava, Indonesia. Poll Res. 40(2), 515-521,

Meng, S., Peng, T., Pratush, A., Huang, T., & Hu, Z. (2021). Interactions between heavy metals and bacteria in mangroves. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 172.

Mourão, F. V., Sousa, A. C. S. R., Mendes, R. M da Luz, Castro, K. M, da Silva A. C., El-Robrini, M., Salomão, U. O, Pereira, J. A. R. & Santos, M. L. S. (2020). Water quality and eutrophication in the Curuçá estuary in northern Brazil. Regional Studies in Marine Sciences.

Pereira, C. D. S., Maranho, L. A., Cortez, F. S., Pusceddu, F. H., Santos, A. R., Ribeiro, D. A., Cesara, A., & Guimarães. L. L. (2016). Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone. Science of the Total Environment.

Piedade, F., Bio, S., & Nunesa, B. (2020). Effects of common pharmaceutical drugs (paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid) short term exposure on biomarkers of the mussel Mytilus spp. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 73.

Puthucherril, T. G. (2021). SDG 14 and Integrated Coastal Zone Management. 1–12.

Raworth, K. (2020). Doughnut economy. Bussiness book. Riani, E., Cordova, M. R., & Arifin, Z. (2018). Heavy metal pollution and its relation to the malformation of green mussels cultured in Muara Kamal waters, Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 133, 664–670.

Sembiring, E., Fareza, A.A., Suendo, V., Reza, M., 2020. The presence of microplastics in water, sediment, and milkfish (Chanos chanos) at the downstream area of Citarum River, Indonesia. Water Air Soil Pollut. 231, 355.

Serrano, O., Lavery, P. S., Bongiovanni, J., & Duarte, C. M. (2020). Impact of seagrass establishment, industrialization and coastal infrastructure on seagrass biogeochemical sinks. Marine Environmental Research, 160.

Suprapto, D., latifahm N., & Suryanti, S. (2021). Spatial distribution of heavy metal content in the water and green mussel (Perna viridis) in Semarang Bay, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 14 (1), 298-308.

Siregar, T. H., Priyanto, N., Putri, A. K., Rachmawati, N., Triwibowo, R., Dsikowitzky, L., & Schwarzbauer, J. (2016). Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of the trace hazardous element contamination in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110(2), 634–646.

Taheran, M., Naghdi, M., Brar, S. K., Verma, M., & Surampalli, R. Y. (2018). Emerging contaminants: Here today, there tomorrow! Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management,10,122–126).

Taylor, M. D. & Suthers, I. M. (2021). The Socio-ecological System of Urban Fisheries in Estuaries. Estuaries and Coast, 44, 1744–1751.

Tussadiah, A., Sujiwo, A. S., Andesta, I., & Daeli, W. (2021). Assessment of coastal ecosystem services and its condition for policy management plan in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 47.

United Nation. (2009). World Organization Prospects: The 2018 Revision. Van der Hal, N., Ariel, A., & Angel, D. L. (2017). Exceptionally high abundances of microplastics in the oligotrophic Israeli Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 116(1–2), 151–155.

Van der Wulp, S. A., Damar, A., Ladwig, N., & Hesse, K. J. (2016). Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110(2), 675–685.

Wahab, N. A., Kamrudin, M. K. A., Toriman, M. E., Ata, F. M, Juahir, H., Ghazali, A., & Anuar, A. (2018). The Evaluation of Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) in Terengganu River, Malaysia. International Journal Engineering and Technology. 7, 44-48

Zhong, X., Yan, M., Ning, X., Yan, Z., & Xin, Y. (2020). Nitrate processing traced by nitrate dual isotopic composition in the early spring in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and adjacent shelf areas. Marine Pollution Bulletin.161, 111699.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Powered by OJS | Design by ThemeOJS